常用的前缀和后缀

转自:北京成人三级英语考试网论坛

  常用的前缀和后缀

  1.常用前缀

    aero?:concerning the air or aircraft

    plane( 飞机)—aeroplane(飞机)

    space(空间, 间隔)—aerospace(航空宇宙)

    anti?: against;opposite of

    nuclear([核]核子的)—antinuclear(反对使用核武器的)

    matter( 物质)—antimatter(反物质)

    war(战争、作战、 打仗)—antiwar(反战的, 反对战争的)

    auto?: of or by oneself

    biography(传记)—autobiography(自传)

    criticism(批评, 批判)—autocriticism(自我反省, 自我检讨)

    be?:to treat as the stated thing

    friend(朋友, 助手)—befriend(待人如友, 帮助)

    little(很少的, 矮小的,很少)—belittle(轻视, 使渺小, 使...显得渺小)

    bi?: two;twice;double

    lingual(语言的)—bilingual(能说两种语言的)

    cycle( 自行车)—bicycle(脚踏车, 自行车)

    bio?:concerning living things

    chemistry(化学)—biochemistry(生物化学)

    sphere(圈子)—biosphere(生物圈)

    by—:less important

    product(产品, 产物,)—by-product(副产品, 附加产物)

    way(路,道路)—byway(小道)

    centi?: hundredth part

    grade(等级)—centigrade(分为百度的, 百分度的, 摄氏温度的)

    meter(米)—centimeter(厘米)

    co?: together, with

    author(作家, 创造者)—coauthor(合著者, 共同执笔者,合著)

    exist(存在, 生存)—coexist(共存)

    col?:(used before l) together, with

    location(位置, 场所)—collocation(排列, 配置)

    com?:(used before b, m, p)together, with

    passion(激情, 热情)—compassion(同情,怜悯)

    con?:together, with

    centric(中心的, 中央的)—concentric(同中心的)

    federation(同盟, 联邦, 联合, 联盟)—confederation(联邦)

    contra?:opposite

    diction(措辞, 用语, 言语)—contradiction(反驳, 矛盾)

    natural(自然的, 自然界的)—contranatural(违背自然的)

    cor?:(used before r) together, with

    relate(叙述, 讲, 使联系, 发生关系)—correlate(使相互关联,和...相关)

    respond(回答, 响应, 作出反应,有反应)—correspond(符合, 协调, 通信, 相当, 相应)

    counter?:opposite

    act(担当,表现, 见效)—counteract(抵消, 中和, 阻碍)

    attack(攻击)—counterattck(反引力)

    cross?:across;going between the stated things and joining them

    country(乡下的, 乡村的, [方]祖国的, 故乡的)—cross?country(越野的, 横过田野的)

    breed((使)繁殖, 教养, 抚养,品种, 种类)—crossbreed([生物]杂种,异种交配, 培育杂种, (使)杂交)

    de?:showing an opposite; to remove; to reduce

    code(代码, 密码)—decode(解码, 译解)

    value(评价, 重视)—devalue((=devaluate)减值, 贬值)

    dis?:not; the opposite of

    advantage(优势, 有利条件)—disadvantage(不利, 不利条件, 缺点, 劣势)

    agree(同意) —disagree(不一致, 不适宜)

    honest(诚实的, 正直的)—dishonest(不诚实的)

    em?:(used before b,m, p) to cause to become

    body(赋以形体)—embody(具体表达, 使具体化)

    power(权力,激励)—empower(授权与, 使能够)

    en?:to cause to become; to make

    danger( 威胁)—endanger(危及)

    large(大的, 巨大的)—enlarge(扩大, 放大)

    ex?:former(and still living)

    minister(部长, 大臣)—ex?minister (前部长)

    wife(妻子)—ex?wife(前妻)

    extra?:outside;beyond

    curricular(课程的)—extracurricular(课外的, 业余的)

    ordinary(平常的, 普通的, 平凡的)—extraordinary(非常的, 特别的, 非凡的)

    fore?:in advance, before; in or at the front

    arm(臂,武器, 装备)—forearm(前臂,准备战斗, 预先武装, 准备)

    warn(警告)—forewarn(预先警告)

    il?:(used before l) not

    legal(法律的, 合法)—illegal(违法的, 不合规定的)

    literate(学者,有文化的,有阅读和写作能力的)—illiterate(违法的, 不合规定的)

    im?:(used before b,m,p)not

    moral(道德(上)的, 精神的,道德)—immoral(不道德的, 邪恶的, 放荡的, 淫荡的)

    possible(可能的)—impossible(不可能的)

    in?:not

    direct(径直的, 直接的)—indirect(间接的, 迂回的)

    sensitive(敏感的, 灵敏的)—insensitive(对...没有感觉的, 感觉迟钝的)

    infra?:below in a range; beyond

    red(红(色)的)—infrared(红外线的,红外线)

    structure(结构,构造)—infrastructure(下部构造, 基础下部组织)

    inter?:between;among

    change(改变, 变化)—interchange((指两人等)交换,相互交换)

    national(国家的, 民族的)—international(国际的, 世界的,国际性组织, 国际比赛)

    intra?:inside, within;into

    city(城市, 都市)—intracity(市内的)

    department(部, 局, 处, 科, 部门, 系, 学部)—intra?department(内部)

    ir?:(used before r)not

    regular(规则的, 有秩序的)—irregular(不规则的, 无规律的)

    responsible(有责任的, 可*的)—irresponsible(不负责任的, 不可*的)

    kilo?:thousand

    gram(克,)—kilogram([物]千克, 公斤)

    meter(米)—kilometer(公里)

    macro?:large, esp.concerning a whole system rather than particular parts of

    particular parts of

    economics(经济学)—macroeconomics(宏观经济学)

    structure(宏观结构)—macrostructure(宏观结构)

    mal?:bad or badly

    function(官能, 功能, 作用)—malfunction(故障)

    treat(宴请, 款待)—maltreat(虐待, 滥用)

    micro?:extremely small

    computer(计算机, 电脑)—microcomputer(微进化)

    electronics(电子学)—microelectronics([电子]微电子学)

    mid?:middle

    day(天, 白天)—midday(正午)

    night(夜, 夜晚)—midnight(午夜)

    mini?:small;short

    bus(公共汽车)—minibus( 小型公共汽车)

    skirt(裙子)—miniskirt

    (迷你短裙, 超短裙)

    mis?:bad or badly;wrong or wrongly

    fortune( 运气, 好运)—misfortune(不幸, 灾祸)

    understand(懂, 了解)—misunderstand(误解, 误会)

    mono?:one;single

    plane( 飞机)—monoplane(单翼机)

    tone(音调, 语调)—monotone(单调的,单调)

    multi?:more than one;many

    purpose(目的, 意图)—multipurpose(多种用途的, 多目标的)

    national(国家的, 国立[有]的, 民族的)—multinational( 多民族的,)

    non?:not

    resident—non(?)resident

    sense 理性, 认识—nonsense(胡说, 废话)

    out?:outside;eyond

    live(活的, 生动的)—outlive(比...长命, 比...耐久)

    door(门, 通道, 家, 户)—outdoor(室外的, 户外的, 野外的)

    over?:too much;above; additional

    head(头,头的, 主要的)—overhead(在头上的,在头顶上, 在空中, 在高处)

    time(时间, 时侯, 时机, )—overtime(超时, 加班, 延长时间,超时的, 加班的,加班地,使超时)

    poly?:many

    centric(中心的, 中央的)—polycentric(多中心的)

    syllabic([语] 音节主音,音节的)—polysyllabic(多音节的)

    post?:later than;after

    graduate((大学)毕业生, 研究生,(使)(大学)毕业)—postgraduate(研究所学生, 研究生,毕业后的)

    war(战争,作战, 打仗)—postwar(战后的)

    pre?:before;in advance

    pay(薪水, 工资,支付)—prepay(预付)

    war(战争,作战, 打仗)—prewar(战前的,在战前)

    pro?:in favor of, supporting

    America(<美>美国, 美洲(包括北美和南美洲))—pro?America

    abortion—pro?abortion(流产, 堕胎, 失败, 夭折, 中止, 早产)

    pseudo?:not real;false

    name( 姓名)—pseudonym(假名, 笔名)

    science(科学, 自然科学)—pseudoscience(假科学, 伪科学)

    re?:again;back to the former state

    unite(联合, 团结)—reunite((使)再结合)

    use(使用)—reuse(再使用,重新使用)

    self?:by means of oneself or itself;of, to, with, for, or in oneself or itself

    employed(雇用, 用, 使用)—self?employed

    taught(teach的过去式和过去分词)—self?taught

    semi?:half;partly

    circle(圆周, 圆形物)—semicircle(半圆形)

    final( 决赛)—semifinal(半决赛)

    step?:not by birth but through a parent who has remarried

    mother(母亲, 妈妈)—stepmother(继母)

    children(孩子, 孩子们)—stepchildren(继子,继女)

    sub?:under,below;less imortant;part of the stated bigger whole

    divide(分, 划分, 分开, 隔开)—subdivide(再分, 细分)

    section(部分)—subsection(分部, 分段)

    super?:more, larger, greater than usual

    market(市场)—supermarket(超级市场)

    natural(自然的, 自然界的, 普通的, 正常的)—supernatural(超自然的, 神奇的,超自然物, 不可思议的事)

    tele?:at or over a long distance;by or for television communication—telecommunication

    screen(屏, 银幕)—telescreen(电视屏幕,荧光屏)

    therm(o)?:concerning heat

    chemistry(化学)—thermochemistry(热化学)

    meter( 计, 表)—thermometer(温度计, 体温计)

    trans?:across, on or to the other side of; between

    Atlantic(大西洋)—transatlantic(大西洋彼岸的)

    plant(种植, 栽培, 培养)—transplant(移植, 移种)

    tri?:three;three times

    angular(有角的)—triangular(三角形的)

    cycle( 自行车)—tricycle(三轮车, 机器三轮车)

    ultra?:beyond;very, extremely

    modern(近代的, 现代的)—ultramodern(超现代化的)

    sound(声音, 语音)—ultrasound(超频率音响)

    un?:not

    certain(确定的, 必然的, 可*的)—uncertain(无常的, 不确定的, 不可预测的, *不住的)

    fortunate(幸运的, 幸福的)—unfortunate(不幸的, 使人遗憾的)

    under?:too little;below

    develop(发展,显影)—underdevelop((使)发展不完全, (使)显影不足)

    sea(海洋, 大浪)—undersea(海面下的)

    uni?:one;single

    form( 形态, 构成)—uniform(统一的, 相同的)

    directional(方向的)—unidirectional(单向的, 单向性的)

    vice?:next in the rank;below

    chairman( , 会长)—vice?chairman(副 , 副议长)

    president(总统, 会长, 行长)—vice?president(副总督, 副省长

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